Modern Italy - the Pifferari, Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1838.

Tate Britain, London, UK.

Aristotle, Greek Aristoteles

(born 384 BCE, Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece — died 322, Chalcis, Euboea)

Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy. Even after the intellectual revolutions of the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Enlightenment, Aristotelian concepts remained embedded in Western thinking.

1637. Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis, USA.


Plato

(born 428/427 BCE, Athens, Greece — died 348/347, Athens)
Ancient Greek philosopher, student of Socrates (c. 470–399 BCE), teacher of Aristotle (384–322 BCE), and founder of the Academy, best known as the author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence.
Plato’s dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, religion and mathematics. His theory of Forms began a unique perspective on abstract objects, and led to a school of thought called Platonism. Plato’s writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato’s texts. (Wikipedia)
Left: 1637. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, USA.Right: 1637. Musée de Picardie, Amiens, France. 
Plato

(born 428/427 BCE, Athens, Greece — died 348/347, Athens)
Ancient Greek philosopher, student of Socrates (c. 470–399 BCE), teacher of Aristotle (384–322 BCE), and founder of the Academy, best known as the author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence.
Plato’s dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, religion and mathematics. His theory of Forms began a unique perspective on abstract objects, and led to a school of thought called Platonism. Plato’s writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato’s texts. (Wikipedia)
Left: 1637. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, USA.Right: 1637. Musée de Picardie, Amiens, France.

Plato

(born 428/427 BCE, Athens, Greece — died 348/347, Athens)

Ancient Greek philosopher, student of Socrates (c. 470–399 BCE), teacher of Aristotle (384–322 BCE), and founder of the Academy, best known as the author of philosophical works of unparalleled influence.

Plato’s dialogues have been used to teach a range of subjects, including philosophy, logic, ethics, rhetoric, religion and mathematics. His theory of Forms began a unique perspective on abstract objects, and led to a school of thought called Platonism.
Plato’s writings have been published in several fashions; this has led to several conventions regarding the naming and referencing of Plato’s texts. (Wikipedia)

Left: 1637. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, USA.
Right: 1637. Musée de Picardie, Amiens, France.

Crates

(born c. 365 BC — died c. 285 BC, Athens, Greece)

Ancient Greek actor and author of comedies. He is considered one of the lesser poets of Attic Old Comedy; his contemporaries were Cratinus and Aristophanes.Crates acted in comedies by Cratinus before he turned to writing. He won three victories at the theatrical contests held as part of the Great Dionysia. About 60 fragments of his work have survived.
Of the approximately 15 known titles, the following are certainly authentic: Neighbours, Dionysus, Heroes, Animals, Lamia, Games, Public Speakers, Samians, and Acts of Violence.

1636. National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, Japan.

Anaxagoras

(born c. 500 BCE, Clazomenae, Anatolia [now in Turkey] — died c. 428, Lampsacus)

Greek philosopher of nature remembered for his cosmology and for his discovery of the true cause of eclipses. He was associated with the Athenian statesman Pericles.
In about 480, Anaxagoras moved to Athens, then becoming the centre of Greek culture, and brought from Ionia the new practice of philosophy and the spirit of scientific inquiry. After 30 years’ residence in Athens, he was prosecuted on a charge of impiety for asserting that the Sun is an incandescent stone somewhat larger than the region of the Peloponnese. The attack on him was intended as an indirect blow at Pericles, and, although Pericles managed to save him, Anaxagoras was compelled to leave Athens. He spent his last years in retirement at Lampsacus.

1636. Private collection.

Euclid, Greek Eukleides

(born c. 300 BCE, Alexandria, Egypt)

The most prominent mathematician of Greco-Roman antiquity, best known for his treatise on geometry, the Elements.

His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century. In the Elements, Euclid deduced the principles of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory and rigor. (Wikipedia)

c. 1630-35. The Getty Centre, Los Angeles, USA.

Pythagoras

(born c. 570 BCE, Samon, Ionia [Greece] — died c. 500–490 BCE, Metapontum, Lucanium [Italy])

Greek philosopher, mathematician, and founder of the Pythagorean brotherhood that, although religious in nature, formulated principles that influenced the thought of Plato and Aristotle and contributed to the development of mathematics and Western rational philosophy.

c. 1630. Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. 


Heraclitus, also spelt Heracleitus

(born c. 540 BCE, Ephesus, Anatolia [now Selçuk, Turkey]—died c. 480)
Greek philosopher remembered for his cosmology, in which fire forms the basic material principle of an orderly universe. Little is known about his life, and the one book he apparently wrote is lost. His views survive in the short fragments quoted and attributed to him by later authors.
Top: c. 1630.Left: c. 1630Right: c. 1630. Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. 
Heraclitus, also spelt Heracleitus

(born c. 540 BCE, Ephesus, Anatolia [now Selçuk, Turkey]—died c. 480)
Greek philosopher remembered for his cosmology, in which fire forms the basic material principle of an orderly universe. Little is known about his life, and the one book he apparently wrote is lost. His views survive in the short fragments quoted and attributed to him by later authors.
Top: c. 1630.Left: c. 1630Right: c. 1630. Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. 
Heraclitus, also spelt Heracleitus

(born c. 540 BCE, Ephesus, Anatolia [now Selçuk, Turkey]—died c. 480)
Greek philosopher remembered for his cosmology, in which fire forms the basic material principle of an orderly universe. Little is known about his life, and the one book he apparently wrote is lost. His views survive in the short fragments quoted and attributed to him by later authors.
Top: c. 1630.Left: c. 1630Right: c. 1630. Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Heraclitus, also spelt Heracleitus

(born c. 540 BCE, Ephesus, Anatolia [now Selçuk, Turkey]—died c. 480)

Greek philosopher remembered for his cosmology, in which fire forms the basic material principle of an orderly universe. Little is known about his life, and the one book he apparently wrote is lost. His views survive in the short fragments quoted and attributed to him by later authors.

Top: c. 1630.
Left: c. 1630
Right: c. 1630. Museo de Bellas Artes de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Democritus

(born c. 460 BC — died c. 370)

Greek philosopher, a central figure in the development of the atomic theory of the universe. Knowledge of Democritus’ life is largely limited to untrustworthy tradition: it seems that he was a wealthy citizen of Abdera, in Thrace; that he traveled widely in the East; and that he lived to a great age. According to Diogenes Laërtius, his works numbered 73; only a few hundred fragments have survived, mostly from his treatises on ethics.

c. 1630. Collection of the Earl of Pembroke, Wilton House, Salisbury, UK.


Archimedes

(born c. 290-280 BCE, Syracuse, Sicily — died 212-211 BCE, Syracuse)
The most famous mathematician and inventor of ancient Greece. Archimedes is especially important for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cyclinder. He is known for his formulation of a hydrostatic principle (known as Archimedes’ principle) and a device for raising water, still used in developing countries, known as the Archimedes screw.
Both paintings: c. 1630. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain. 
Archimedes

(born c. 290-280 BCE, Syracuse, Sicily — died 212-211 BCE, Syracuse)
The most famous mathematician and inventor of ancient Greece. Archimedes is especially important for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cyclinder. He is known for his formulation of a hydrostatic principle (known as Archimedes’ principle) and a device for raising water, still used in developing countries, known as the Archimedes screw.
Both paintings: c. 1630. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Archimedes

(born c. 290-280 BCE, Syracuse, Sicily — died 212-211 BCE, Syracuse)

The most famous mathematician and inventor of ancient Greece. Archimedes is especially important for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing cyclinder. He is known for his formulation of a hydrostatic principle (known as Archimedes’ principle) and a device for raising water, still used in developing countries, known as the Archimedes screw.

Both paintings: c. 1630. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.


Diogenes

(born, Sinope, Paphlygonia — died c. 320 BCE, probably at Corinth, Greece)
Archetype of the Cynics, a Greek philosophical sect that stressed stoic self-sufficiency and the rejection of luxury. He is credited by some with originating the Cynic way of life, but he himself acknowledges an indebtedness to Antisthenes, by whose numerous writings he was probably influenced. It was by personal example rather than any coherent system of thought that Diogenes conveyed the Cynic philosophy. His followers positioned themselves as watchdogs of morality.
Left: 1630.Right: 1630. Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany. 
Diogenes

(born, Sinope, Paphlygonia — died c. 320 BCE, probably at Corinth, Greece)
Archetype of the Cynics, a Greek philosophical sect that stressed stoic self-sufficiency and the rejection of luxury. He is credited by some with originating the Cynic way of life, but he himself acknowledges an indebtedness to Antisthenes, by whose numerous writings he was probably influenced. It was by personal example rather than any coherent system of thought that Diogenes conveyed the Cynic philosophy. His followers positioned themselves as watchdogs of morality.
Left: 1630.Right: 1630. Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany.

Diogenes

(born, Sinope, Paphlygonia — died c. 320 BCE, probably at Corinth, Greece)

Archetype of the Cynics, a Greek philosophical sect that stressed stoic self-sufficiency and the rejection of luxury. He is credited by some with originating the Cynic way of life, but he himself acknowledges an indebtedness to Antisthenes, by whose numerous writings he was probably influenced. It was by personal example rather than any coherent system of thought that Diogenes conveyed the Cynic philosophy. His followers positioned themselves as watchdogs of morality.

Left: 1630.
Right: 1630. Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany.

Philosophers’ series — Jusepe de Ribera (1591 – 1652)

This week, I Are Art will display a series of ten philosophers painted by Ribera, started in 1630 and ending approximately a decade later. 

Despite researches, a precise account of these paintings hasn’t been found and some confusion has arisen concerning a few of the philosophers.
This sometimes led to having two different paintings depicting the same character; additionaly, some of the pictures featured throughout this week will be of rather low quality — apologies about it.

Again, any correction or additional information will be gladly received.

All philosophers’ description come from the Encyclopædia Britannica unless otherwise stated. 

Portrait of José de RiberaBiblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid, Spain.

Venus AnadyomeneTiziano Vecelli, c. 1520.

National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland.

The Blinding of SamsonRembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, 1636.

Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, Germany.

Metropolis, Fritz Lang, 1927.